When the SQL statement is processed by the database memory, the system checks for validity violations. The steps are listed below:
1. Does the SQL statement affect objects protected by the domain? If yes, go to step 2. Otherwise, the ranges have no effect on the SQL statement. Continue with step 7.

2. Is this area mandatory? If yes, go to step 4. If this is a normal area, go to step 3.

3. Does the database account use system privileges to run the SQL query? If yes, go to step 4. If not, go to step 6. If a session only has object permissions for SELECT, EXECUTE, and DML declarations, no scope protection is provided. Realms protects against the use of any system privileges on objects or roles protected by Realms. Note that if the initialization parameter O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY is set to TRUE, non-SYS users can access SYS schema objects. Make sure O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY is set to FALSE to be sure.

4. Is the account in the database an owner or a participant in the property? If yes, go to step 5. Otherwise, the scope is violated and the claim cannot succeed. If the assignment is an AGREEMENT or REVIEW of a role protected by a realm, or an AGREEMENT or REVIEW of a lien on an object protected by a realm, the session must be authorized as an owner of the realm, directly or indirectly through the roles.

5. Does the actual authorization of a database account depend on a set of rules? If yes, go to step 6. If not, go to step 7.

6. Is the evaluation of the rule registration TRUE? If yes, go to step 7. Otherwise, there is a domain violation and the SQL statement may not succeed.

7. Does the rule prevent the execution of the order? If this is the case, the command line is violated and the SQL statement does not work. If not, there is no violation of the rules of the realm or command and the command is executed successfully.

Benefits of using kingdoms

Use scopes to protect a group of objects or roles in the database from other privileged users.

  • IFA’s have a z. B. full rights such as CHOOSE ANY TABLE or DEPOSIT ANY TABLE. These users can read or destroy data they don’t need. It is preferable to limit access to this data to users and application administrators.
  • A range can be set to limit access. You can define a scope, add protected objects to it, and add users who are authorized to access the objects within the scope.
  • Domains can also limit the set of users who can grant access rights to the objects in a domain. For example, to offer OPERATION by packet, expected views and GRANT by role.
  • Realms also helps you comply with PCI, SOX, HIPAA and other requirements that require access to sensitive data based on user knowledge.
  • Mandatory spheres can be deployed in response to a cyber threat and prevent access until the threat has been analyzed.

Protecting objects from DBA

In this example, the user SALES_DBA is configured as the database administrator for the sales application. As a result, this user has been assigned the role of DBA, which means that this role has many powerful permissions, including the role of DROP ALL TABLE. Normally, SALES_DBA can delete any table from the database, including tables from other schemas such as HR.

Step 1 shows how this DBA application can delete a table that belongs to another application.

SQL> CONNECT sales_dba/password
SQL> DROP TABLE hr.bonus_it; table
is omitted.

In step 2, user leo_dvowner creates a bucket with Database Vault Administrator and stores all HR tables in this bucket.

Then in step 3, the same SALES_DBA user tries to reset the same (now restored) HR table, but fails to do so. Instead, a line violation error is returned and the DROP TABLE command fails.

SQL> DROP TABLE hr.bonus_it;
ORA-47401 : Fault for filing table

Impact of zones on non-members

If the user is not a member of the domain authorization, he or she can only access objects protected by the domain by granting the appropriate permissions per object. A user cannot rely on system authorizations such as SELECT ANY TABLE to access objects if those objects are protected in the domain.

In addition, users cannot be trusted to have the system. Schema owners cannot delete, modify or create objects in their own schemas if the schema is protected in a scope and the schema owners are not members of this scope. To grant such access, the schema owner may be authorized within the scope. Other users may receive the DV_REALM_OWNER role or direct object level authorizations for schema objects. The subsidy must be provided by a user who is already a member (or rather, owner) of the Kingdom.

Protection functions

The following steps illustrate how to protect a roll with a :
1. The user creates the role BENNIES.

Role created.

2. The leo_dvowner user uses Database Vault Administrator (DVA) to protect the BENNIES role in the domain.

3. The user leo_dvowner uses DVA to add HR as a member in this domain.

4. The HR user tries to specify a role, but without success. Indeed, the HR user is a participant and not an owner in the kingdom.

SQL> grant bennies to sh;
ORA-47401 : Violation of role assignment privilege is NULL.NULL.

5. The user leo_dvowner uses DVA to change the HR user to an owner in the realm, not a member.

6. The HR user can now specify a role.

SQL> GRANT bennies TO sh;
Grant successful.

7. The HR user also has the option to withdraw from this role.

SQL> REVOKE bennies FROM sh;
The revocation was successful.

Required fields and object rights

By default, users who own objects or have object authorizations have access to objects protected by reality without explicit authorization in reality. However, you can set this field to prevent these users from accessing the objects by setting it as a required field.

In the Oracle 12c database, if you need to deny users access to objects with object rights protected with reality, create a mandatory reality. For this scope, users can only access objects protected by this scope if they are members of this permission scope. Thus, in order to access protected objects in real time, users must have real time rights for the protected objects and the schema owner of the protected object must be a member of this reality in real time.

You can also use the required fields in response to a cyber threat to prevent access until the threat is analyzed.

Protection with mandatory range

The Kingdom defends the HR regime. The HR user can select the rows of the protected tables in the HR schema, since the owner is always given OBJECT rights to his or her objects. Since this privilege is not always desirable, you decide to prevent the HR user from selecting data from his or her own tables. You can update HR_REALM as a required area, or you can create a required area and protect sensitive objects.

Instructions for use :
1. HR can select in table EMPLOYEES the lines that are protected in the normal field HR_REALM.

SQL> select HR employee last name;

2. Leo_downwer makes the HR_REALM field mandatory.

3. HR cannot view the rows in the EMPLOYEES table.

SQL> select last name of HR employees;
select * of HR employees
ERROR in line 1 :
ORA-01031 : Insufficient permits

Characteristics of mandatory fields

  • If the installation is protected by the normal and prescribed zone, safer rules apply.
  • If there are multiple required fields for the same object, you must authorize the user or role for all required fields before the user can access the protected object.
  • If the role is protected by a binding scope, no privilege can be granted or revoked to the protected role except by the owner of the scope.

Use mandatory fields

The advantages of the mandatory bulbs are listed below:

  • Can lock object owners and privileged object users.
  • Offer more flexible access control configurations.
  • Add a level of protection to patch updates.
  • Protect the offices while you work.
  • Enable freezing of security settings by preventing the configured roles from being changed.
  • Also add additional multi-factor authentication for connections through the application account.

Protection of sensitive data during switching

During a patch update, the database administrator may need direct access to an object that is actually protected in order to apply a patch to that object. If the tables in a range contain sensitive data, such as. For example, for social security numbers, you can use mandatory ranges to protect these tables from administrator access during a patch update.

When the administrator has finished installing patches and no longer needs access to objects, mandatory field protection can be disabled, allowing applications to run normally. For example, mandatory fields can provide protection from DBA when they are updated, even if they register as the owner of the application schema.

Protection of sensitive data during implementation

At runtime, application data is stored in many different schemas. It is recommended that a single user APPS, for example B. a runtime scheme, be used to access these tables to ensure data integrity and accuracy. When application data is spread across many different schemas, schema owners and users with rights to objects can also modify the data when they enter the database directly.

To ensure that no user can update the tables without performing the procedures in the schema, use scopes to protect the tables. So only authorized users have access to it. Since normal staves and privileged users do not lock the objects, use mandatory staves to lock them, as in steps 1 and 2 on the slide. Only authorized users have access to these tables.

Tasks including areas

1. You must create a kingdom before adding items. This can be done with different tools. They all use the CREATE_REALM procedure from the DBMS_MACADM package in the DVSYS schema.

2. By editing a field, you can change anything that is defined for that field. This is also the method to protect objects in reality (RENAME_REALM, UPDATE_REALM).

3. When you create a protected object, you place it under the protection of a domain. You indicate the owner of the object(s) to be added. Objects of different users and of different types may be located in the same area. You can use the % for all object types or a specific type like TABLE or CLUSTER. You can use the % for object names in the same way (ADD_OBJECT_TO_REALM, DELETE_OBJECT_FROM_REALM).

4. To add authorizations to the domain, you must specify the recipient (the name of the user or role to be authorized) and the type : Define the member or owner (corresponding to the WITH ADMIN option) (ADD_AUTH_TO_REALM, UPDATE_REALM_AUTH, DELETE_AUTH_FROM_REALM).

5. When you add an authorization to the domain, you can also specify a set of authorization rules. These rules must be followed to gain access to objects protected by reality.

6. Database Vault removes the configuration for a bucket, including the bucket permissions. It does not remove the rulesets used for domain authorization (DELETE_REALM, DELETE_REALM_CASCADE).

Domain characteristics

These are the attributes of the kingdom:

1. Name: The name of the kingdom. We’ll refer to it later. A distinction is made between upper and lower case letters.
2. Description : Description of the Kingdom.
3. Status : On or off. When it is deactivated, it has no effect. The status is set by default.
4. Audit options : The audit options for a domain can be set to one of the following values:

  • Audit of Persons with Disabilities
  • Audit error (default)
  • Test pass or fail

In a non-uniform audit environment, the database store writes the audit log to the DVSYS.AUDIT_TRAIL$ table. If you have enabled unified auditing, you cannot enter audit records with this setting. Instead, an audit policy should be created that allows this information to be captured.

5. State protected objects : List of objects and roles protected by schedule
6. Field permits : A list of authorized users or roles. This determines which users have access to the objects protected by this scope.

Domain types

Views that contain information about the region:

1. DBA_DV_REALM : Each range is represented here by a line.

  • NAME: Name of the Kingdom
  • DESCRIPTION : Description of the Kingdom
  • AUDIT OPTIONS : A number indicating when an audit will be conducted:
    • 0 : Never check
    • 1: error checking
    • 3 : Test pass or fail
  • ENABLER: Whether this area is included or not. The value can be Y or N.

2. DBA_DV_REALM_OBJECT : This view contains a list of objects that are protected by reality.

  • REALM_NAME : The name of the kingdom
  • OWNER : The owner of the plant protected himself from prying eyes.
  • OBJECT_NAME : Name of the protected object
  • OBJECT_TYPE : Type of protected object

3. DBA_DV_REALM_AUTH : This model represents the authority in this field.

  • REALM_NAME : The name of the kingdom
  • GREATNESS: A user or role that is authorized to access protected living things.
  • AUTH_RULE_SET_NAME : The set of rules that must be evaluated to allow the receiver to access the protected objects in reality.
  • AUTH_OPTIONS : Indicates whether the grant recipient can perform roles that are guaranteed in this area:
    • Participants : Cannot be delivered
    • Owner: Can provide the following

4. The DVSYS.DV$REALM view describes the parameters used to create the database storage areas, for example, which audit options are assigned, whether the scope is mandatory, etc.

Domains defined by Oracle

Default fields are enabled and failover audits are performed.

  • Storage of the Oracle database : Protects configuration and role information in the DVSYS, DVF and LBACSYS schemas in the database vault.
  • Account management of the database repository : Defines an area where administrators can manage and create accounts and database profiles. This field protects the roles DV_ACCTMGR and CONNECT. The owner of this space can grant or withdraw the right to CREATE SESSION to the user.
  • Oracle Enterprise Manager : Protects Oracle Enterprise Manager accounts used for monitoring and management (DBSNMP user and OEM_MONITOR role).
  • Oracle’s default range of schedule protection : Protects roles and schemas used with Oracle features such as Oracle OLAP, Oracle Spatial, and Oracle Text.
  • Oracle System Privilege and Role Management Domain : Protects all sensitive roles used to export and import data to and from the Oracle database. This area also contains the permissions that allow users to grant rights on the system. By default, the SYS user is the sole owner of this zone. Only the owners of this space can assign protected roles to other users.
  • The default protection zone for Oracle components : Protects SYSTEM and OUTLN circuits. The authorized users of this area are the users of SYS and SYSTEM.

Predefined reports

  • Audits of property audit reports : Documents generated by protection and authorization activities in the area. This is useful for debugging rulesets and tracking failed authorization attempts. This report also shows the violations in practice. This report indicates when a database account attempts to perform an action on a bucket object for which it is not authorized to perform that action. When you set up an audit scope, you specify the audit options for the transactions in that scope.
  • Authorization Configuration Area : Provides information on setting up authorizations, such as. B. Incomplete or invalid rules or non-existent beneficiaries or owners that may impact the area.
  • Report on problems with the ruleset configuration : Lists rules that have not defined or allowed rules that may affect the application areas that use them.
  • Object Privilege Reports : List of object authorisations granted by the government.
  • Summary reports of the Privilege Management : Provides information about the recipient and the owner of the kingdom.
  • Reports on sensitive objects : List of objects to which the control rule applies.

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